# Hybrid Pseudo Kleinian

a pragmatic approach of a 3d fractal hybrid, which combines the formal properties of two fractals in one system.

PseudoKleinians are a type of fractal, graphically simillar to Kleinian fractals, but of a completely different formal math origin. The principle was discovered by a user called Theli-at back in 2011 in a “hybrid” of two fractals.

https://www. deviantart.com/theli-at/art/Kleinian-drops-192676501

This is a special Mandelbox hybrid, where the transformations of the Mandelbox are executed in this case 12 times without scaling and without adding c, followed by a second fractal transformation - also several times - with adding c at the end of the iteration cycle.

Soon after this post a coder called knighty ‒ well known in the genre of fractals ‒ defined it as Mandelbox + something and created a stand alone formula of it. A great achievement, that is standard presentation for PseudoKleinian fractals since that time. Further more knighty first documented hybrid stuctres with the Menger Sponge.

http://blog. hvidtfeldts.net/index.php/2012/05/distance-estimated-3d-fractals-part-viii-epilogue/

Unfortunately I wasn’t aware of that collection, so I needed to go back to the original hybrid to work out the differences to knighty’s standalone formula.

The difference is in short, that the standalone version adds “something” to fill the space, which leads to spheres as intermediate figure. In the hybrid display you can fill the space with a second fractal like shown in this gallery.

My aim here was to work out the details of the hybrid construction in a generalized way. Further more I could show, that AmazingSurface can be configured, that it “generates” a PseudoKleinian grid, just like AmazingBox. I once called this AsurfPseudo

And in fact building a PseudoKleinian only from AmazingSurface, was the starting point for my exploration of that system.

You find parameters for Mandelbulber for most images in this gallery.

## carambollage

The essence, I saw in Theli-at’s combo is (simplified)

transform(boxfold|ballfold)+transform(f2)+cAll following examples work with that pattern.

*AmazingSurface two times c=(0 0 0)*

## ported principle

The shown principles are implemented in Mandelbulber, one of the common programmes for that task. In Mandelbulb3d – the other commom software – this can only partly be reproduced with restrictions in choice of formula 2.

*A Mandelbulb3d portation with Abox in slot one and two.*

## janus

Initially my aim was to implement “box-like” fractals – AmazingBox (Mandelbox), AmazingSurface and others. This worked pretty well and it soon turned out, that formal properties of fractal 2 can be projected almost undisturbed in a “Pseudo Kleinian grid”. And even more. All standard formulas work in the given pattern with full preservation of formal properties in formula 2.

*Asurf with Abox in slot two*

## aurelia

The standard Mandelbulb works in that system, but not well. So here a Mandelbulb quat.

## menger pseudo

A classic fractal – a Menger Sponge – in slot two. This shows nicely, how the formal properties of fractal two shows up in the Pseudo Kleinian order. The global constant c in hybrid Pseudo Kleinians gives the opportunity to control the density and shape of that appearance.

This hybrid was first documented by knighty and Mikael Hvidtfeldt Christensen in Syntopia Blog

## basic M-set

A Mandelbox* (mset) overlaid with the Pseudo Kleinian grid.

* Mandelbox means the same fractal as AmazingBox, Abox or sometimes Mbox

## static view

A Kaleidoscopic IFS put in the PseudoKleinian order. You can see this KIFS bottom right in single formula use.

## 2.5d Pseudo

A specialty of AmazingSurface. Without rotation a Pseudo Kleinian in extended 2d can be created. I once called this a 2.5d Pseudo Kleinian. A rather metaphoric description. This is different to all other Pseudo Kleinians, also the dedicated Formulas.

## desert copper

This is an elaboration of that 2.5d Pseudo.

The figure is cut out by a surrounding sphere.

## equilibrium

A sphere inversion as pre transform helps to grasp the object, creating a limited entity. At this point I had the feeling for the first time that a circle was closing – or a sphere…

## owl

Finally there is a (simple) way to integrate basic transforms like rectangular grids, tri- and hexgrids and some more complex, dedicated pure transformations into the hybrid Pseudo concept.